III rd Sem Pure chem - pg syllabus

III rd Sem Pure chem


Semester III

S. N.
L / W
Laboratory course
CHE-E-3212 to 3215
Spectroscopy, Photochemistry, Solid state Chemistry
Bioinorganic, Bioorganic, Biophysical
Environmental Chemistry
Organo transitional chemistry
Bio inorganic & Supramolecular chemistry
Heterocyclic chemistry
Chemistry of Natural Products
Chemistry of Materials
Nuclear Chemistry
Analytical Chemistry

Distribution of marks
Theory courses
Compulsory Papers (CHE-C-321-323)          Elective Papers (CHE-E-324-3210) (Any two)
Laboratory courses (Practicals)
Compulsory -CHE-C-3211      Elective- CHE-E-3212 to 3215 (Any One)

Quiz I
Quiz II
Quiz III
Mid Sem I
Mid Sem II
Total Internal
End Sem 

Lab Courses
CHE-C-3211                           Common for all
CHE-E-3212:                          For those opting Paper CHE-E-324 & 325
CHE-E-3213                           For those opting Paper CHE-E-326 & 327
CHE-E-3214                           For those opting Paper CHE-E-328 & 329
CHE-E-3215                           For those opting Paper CHE-E-3210
End semester examination will be of 60 marks (2 experiments: 20x2 = 40, Viva=10, Sessional=10). Practical examination duration will be of 6 hours.
Mid Semester 1 and 2 each of 20 Marks, end semester-60 marks
Total 100 marks
Spectroscopy, Photochemistry and Solid State Chemistry
60 Hrs, Credit-04
Vibrational Spectroscopy                                                                                            
Symmetry and shapes of AB2, AB3, AB4, AB5, and AB6 mode of bonding of ambi-dentate ligands, ethylenediiamine and diketoneto complexes, applications of resonance Raman spectroscopy, particularly for the study of active sites of metalo –proteins.
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
 Hyperfine Coupling, spin polarization for atoms and transitional metal ions, spin orbit coupling and significance of g-tensors, application to transitional metal complexes (having one unpaired electron) including biological systems and to inorganic free radicals such as PH4, F2 and [BH3]
Optical Rotatory Dispersion, [ORD] and Circular Dichorism {CD}
 Definition, deduction of absolute configuration, octant rule for ketones.
Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy
Various electronic transitions (185 – 800 nm) Beer Lambert Law, effect of solvent on electronic transitions, ultraviolet bands for carbonyl compounds, unsaturated carbonyl compounds, dienes conjugated polyenes,. Fieser Woodward rule for conjugated dienes and carbonyl compounds, uv spectra of aromatic and heterocyclic compounds. Steric effect in biphenyls.
Infrared spectroscopy
Instrumentation and sample handling, characteristic vibrational frequencies of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic compounds, alcohols, ethers, phenols and amines. Detailed study of vibration frequencies of carbonyl compounds (ketones, aldehydes, esters, amides, acids, anhydrides, lactones, lactams and conjugated carbonyl compounds). Effect of hydrogen bonding and solvent effect on vibrational frequencies, overtones, combination bands and Fermi resonance. FT–IR. IR of gaseous, solids and polymeric materials.
Mass spectrometry
Introduction, ion production-EI, CI, FD and FAB, Factors affecting fragmentation ion analysis, ion abundance, mass spectral fragmentation of organic compounds of common functional groups. Molecular ion peak, metastable peak, McLafferty rearrangement, Nitrogen rule. High resolution mass spectrometry. Examples of mass spectral fragmentation of organic compounds with respect to their structure determination.
Photochemical Reactions
Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter, types of excitations, fate of excited molecules, quantum yield, transfer of excitation energy, actinometry.
Determination of Reaction Mechanism
Classification, rate constant and life times of reactive energy states — determination of rate constants of reactions. Effect of light intensity on the rate of photochemical reactions. Types of photochemical reactions, photo-dissociation, gas - phase photolysis.
Photochemistry of Alkenes
Intramolecular reactions of the olefinic bond — geometrical isomerism, cyclisation reactions, rearrangement of 1,4 and 1,5- dienes
Solid state reactions
General principles, experimental procedures, co-precipitation as a precursor to solid state reactions, kinetics of solid state reactions.
Crystal Defects and Non stochiometry
Perfect and imperfect crystals, intrinsic and extrinsic defects- point defects, line and plane defects, vacancies-Schottky defects and Frenkel defects. Thermodynamics of Schottky and Frenkel defect formation, colour centres, non stochiometry and defects.
Organic Solids
Electrically conducting solids, organic charge transfer complex, organic metals, new super conductors.

Bioinorganic, Bioorganic and Biophysical Chemistry
45 Hrs, Credit-03
(a)         Bioinorganic Chemistry                                                           
Metal ions in biological systems
Essential and trace metals
Role of metalions in biological processes.
Bioenergetics and ATP Cycle
DNA polymerisation, glucose storage, metal complexes in transmission of energy,
chlorophylls, photosystem I and photosystem II in cleavage of water, model systems. 
Biological nitrogen fixation, molybdenum nitrogenase, spectroscopic and other evidence,
other nitrogenase model systems.
(b)         Bioorganic Chemistry
Basic considerations, proximity effects and molecular adaptation.
Introduction and historical perspective, chemical and biological catalysis.
Remarkable properties of enzymes like catalytic power, specificity and regulation. Nomenclature and classification, extraction and purification. Fischer’s lock and key and Kosohfand’s induced fit hypothesis, concept and identification of active site by the use of inhibitors, affinity labelling and enzyme modification by site directed mutagenesis, enzyme kinetics, Michaelis and Lineweaver- Burk plots, reversible and irreversible inhibition.
Mechanism of Enzyme Action:-
Transition state theory, orientation and steric effect, acid base catalysis, covalent catalysis strain or distortion. Examples of some typical enzyme mechanisms for chymotrypsin, ribonuclease, lysoztyme and carboxypeptidase A .
Co-enzyme Chemistry:
Cofactors as derived from vitamins, coenzymes, prosthetic groups, apoenzymes. Structure and biological function of coenzyme A, thiamine pyrophosphate, pyridoxal phosphate, NAD, NADP, FMN, FAD, lipoic acid, vitamin B12. Mechanisms of reactions catalyzed by the above cofactors.
(c)          Biophysical Chemistry
Biological Cell and its constituents.
Biological cell, structure and function of proteins, enzymes, DNA and RNA in living systems,
Helix coil transition.
Standard free energy change in biochemical reactions, exergonic, endergonic, Hydrolysis
of ATP, Synthesis of ATP from ADP.
Statistical Mechanics in Biopolymers
Chain configuration of macromolecules, statistical distribution end to end dimensions,
calculation of average dimensions for various chain structures, Polypeptide and protein
structures, introduction to protein folding problem.
Biopolymer Interactions
Forces involved in biopolymer interaction, electrostatic charges and molecular expansion,
hydrophobic forces, dispersion force interactions, multiple equilibria and various types of
binding processes in biological systems, Hydrogen ion titration curves.
Environnemental Chemistry
30 Hrs, Credit-02
1.         Environment                                                                                         
Introduction, Composition of atmosphere, vertical temperature, heat budget of earth atmospheric system, the Biogeochemical cycle of C, N, P, S and O.
II         Hydrosphere                                                                                          
Chemical composition of water bodies-lakes, streams, rivers and wet lands etc. Hydrological cycle.
Aquatic pollution- inorganic, organic, agricultural, industrial and sewage, detergents, oil spills and oil pollutants, Water quality parameters – dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, solids, content of chloride, sulphate, nitrate and nitrite, Water quality standards. Analytical methods for measuring metals (As, Cd, Cr, F, Pb, Hg, Se,) Purification and treatment of water
III        Soils                                                                                                     
Composition, micro and macro nutrients, Pollution- fertilizers, pesticides, plastics and metals. Waste treatment.
IV        Atmosphere                                                                                        
Chemical composition of atmosphere- particles, ions and radicals and their formation. Chemical and photochemical reactions in atmosphere, smog formation, oxides of N,C,S and their effect, pollution by chemicals, petroleum, chlorofluorohydrocarbons. Green house effect, acid rain, air pollution controls. Analytical methods for measuring air pollutants.
Organo-transition Metal Chemistry
60 Hrs, Credit-04
Alkyls and Aryls of Transition Metals
Types, routes of synthesis, stability and decomposition pathways, organo copper in organic synthesis.
Compounds of Transition Metal-Carbon Multiple Bonds
Alkylidenes, alkylidynes, low valent carbenes and carbynes-synthesis, nature of bond structural characteristics, nucleophilic and electrophilic reactions on the ligands, role in organic synthesis.
Transition Metal Π-Complexes
Transition metal Π-complexes with unsaturated organic molecules, alkenes, alkynes, alkynes, allyl, diene, dienyl, arene and trienyl complexes, preparations, properties, nature of bonding and structural features. Important reactions relating to nucleophilic and electrophilic attack on ligiands and to organic synthesis.
Transition Metal Compounds with Bonds to Hydrogoen
Transition metal compounds with bonds to hydrogen.
Homogeneous catalysis
Stochiometric reactions for catalysis homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation, Zeigler-Natta polymerization of olefins, catalytic reactions involving carbon monoxide such as hydrocarbonylation of olefins (oxo reaction), oxopalladation reactions, activation of C-H bond.
Fluxional Organometallic Compounds
Fluxionality and dynamic equilibria in compounds such as n2-olefin, n3-allyl and dienyl complexes.
Books Suggested
1.                  Principles and Applications of Organotransition Metal Chemistry, J.P. Collman, L.S. Hegsdus, J.R. Norton and R.G. Finke, University Science Books.
2.                  The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals, R.H. Crabtree, John Wiley
3.                  Metallo-organic Chemistry, A.J. Pearson, Wiley
4.                  Organometallic Chemistry, R.C. Mehrotra and A.Singh, New Age International
                                             Bioinorganic and Supramolecular Chemistry     
60 Hrs, Credit-04
Metal Storage Transport and Biomineralization.
Ferritin, transferring, and siderophores
Calcium in Biology
Calcium in living cells, transport and regulation, molecular aspects of intramolecular processes, extra cellular binding proteins.
Zinc enzymes – carboxypeptidase and carbonic anhydrase, Iron enzymes – catalase, proxidase and cytochrome P-450. Copper enzymes- superoxide dismutase. Molybdenum oxatransferase enzymes – xanthine oxidase. Coenzyme vitamin B12
Metal—Nucleic Acid Interactions
Metal ions and metal complex interactions. Metal complexes – nucleic acid
Metals in Medicine
Metal deficiency and disease, toxic effects of metals, metals used for diagnosis and chemotherapy with particular reference to anticancer drugs.
Supramolecular Chemistry
Concepts and language.
(A)              Molecular recognition: Molecular receptors for different types of molecules including arisonic substrates, design and synthesis of co receptor molecules and multiple recognition.
(B)              Supramolecular reactivity and catalysis
(C)              Transport processes and carrier design.
(D)              Supramolecular devices. Supramolecular photochemistry, supramolecular electronic, ionic and switching devices.
Some example of self-assembly in supramolecular chemistry
Books Suggested
1.                  Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry, S.J.Lippard and J.M.Berg. University Science Books
2.                  Bioinorganic Chemistry, I Bertomo, H.B. Gray, S.J. Lippard and J.S. Valentine, University Science Books
3.                  Inorganic Biochemistry vols I and II ed. G.L. Eichhorn, Elsevier.
4.                  Progress in Inorganic Chemistry, Vols 18 and 38 ed. J.J. Lippard, Viley
5.                  Supramolecular Chemistry, J.M. Lehn. VCH
M.Sc., Semester – III (Session-2010)
Elective Paper CHE-E-326
Heterocyclic Chemistry
60 Hrs, Credit-04
I. Nomenclature of Heterocycles                                                                                             
Replacement and systematic nomenclature (Hantzsch-Widman system) for monocyclic, fused and bridged heterocycles.
II. Aromatic Heterocycles                                                                                                         
General chemical behaviour of aromatic heterocycles, classification (structural type), criteria of aromaticity (bond lengths, ring current and chemical shifts in 1H NMR spectra, empirical resonance energy, delocalization energy and Dewar resonance energy, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltations).
Heteroaromatic reactivity and tautomerism in aromatic heterocycles
III. Non-aromatic Heterocycles                                                                                                
Strain-bond angle and torsional strains and their consequences in small ring heterocycles. Conformation of six membered heterocycles with reference to molecular geometry, barrier to ring inversion, pyramidal inversion and 1, 3-diaxial interaction.
Stereo-electronic effects- anomeric and related effects. Attractive interactions- hydrogen bonding and intermolecular nucleophilic- electrophilic interactions
IV. Heterocyclic Synthesis                                                                                                        
Principles of heterocyclic synthesis involving cyclization reactions and cycloaddition reactions.
V. Small Ring Heterocycles                                                                                                        
Three-membered and four-membered heterocycles-synthesis and reactions of aziridines, oxiranes, thiiranes, azetidines, oxetanes and thietanes.
VI. Benzo-Fused Five-Membered Heterocycles                                                                      
Synthesis and reactions including medicinal applications of benzopyrroles, benzofurans and benzothiophenes.
VII. Meso-ionic Heterocycles                                                                                                     
General classification chemistry of some important meso-ionic heterocycles of type-A and B and their applications.
VIII. Six-Membered Heterocycles with One Heteroatom                                                      
Synthesis and reactions of pyrylium salts and pyrones and their comparison with pyridinium and thiopyrylium salts and pyridones.
Synthesis and reactions of quinolizinium and benzopyrylium salts, coumarins and chromones (flavones).
IX. Six-Membered Heterocycles with Two or More Heteroatoms                                       
Synthesis and reactions of diazines, triazines, tetrazines and thiazines.
X. Seven and Large-Membered Heterocycles                                                                          
Synthesis and reactions of azepines, oxepines, thiepines, diazepines thiazepines, azocines, diazocines, dioxocines and dithiocines.
XI. Heterocyclic Systems Containing P, As, Sb and B                                                            
Heterocyclic rings containing phosphorus: Introduction, nomenclature, synthesis and characteristics of 5-and 6-membered ring systems.
Heterocyclic rings containing As and Sb: Introduction, synthesis and characteristics of 5- and 6-membered ring systems.
Heterocyclic rings containing B: Introduction, synthesis, reactivity and characteristics of 5- and 6-membered ring systems.
Books Suggested
1.Heterocyclic Chemistry Vol. 1-3, R. R. Gupta, M. Kumar and V. Gupta, Springer Verlag.
2.The Chemistry of Heterocycles, T. Eicher and S. Hauptmann, Thieme.
3.Heterocyclic Chemistry, J. A. Joule, K. Mills and G. F. Smith, Chapman and Hall.
4.Heterocyclic Chemistry, T. L. Gilchrist, Longman Scientific Technical.
5.Contemporary Heterocyclic Chemistry, G. R. Newkome and W. W. Paudler, Wiley-lnter Science.
6.An Introduction to the Heterocyclic Compounds, R. M. Acheson, John Wiley.
7.Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry, A. R. Katritzky and C. W. Rees, eds. Pergamon Press.
M.Sc., Semester – III (Session 2010)
Elective Paper CHE-E-327
      Chemistry of Natural Products
      60 Hrs, Credit-04
I. Terpenoids and Carotenoids                                                                                              
Classification, nomenclature, occurrence, isolation, general methods of structure determination, isoprene rule.
Structure determination, stereochemistry and synthesis of the following representative molecules: Citral, Geraniol, α-Terpeneol, Menthol, Farnesol, Zingiberene, Santonin, Phytol, Abietic acid and β-Carotene.Biosynthesis of terpenoids.
Definition, nomenclature and physiological action, occurrence, isolation, general methods of structure elucidation, degradation, classification based on nitrogen heterocyclic ring, role of alkaloids in plants.
Structure, stereochemistry and synthesis of the following: Ephedrine, (±) Conine, Nicotine, Atropine, Quinine and Morphine: Biosynthesis of alkaloids.
III. Steroids                                                                                                                             
Occurrence, nomenclature, basic skeleton, Diel’s hydrocarbon and stereochemistry. Isolation, structure determination and synthesis of Cholesterol, Bile acids, Androsterone, Testosterone, Estrone, Progestrone, Aldosterone. Biosynthesis of steroids.
IV. Plant Pigments                                                                                                                    
Occurrence, nomenclature and general methods of structure determination. Isolation and synthesis of Apigenin, Luteolin, Myrcetin, Quercetin-3-glucoside, Vitexin, Daidzein, Butein, Aureusin, Cyanidin-3, 5-diglucoside, Biosynthesis of flavonoids: Acetate pathway and Shikimic acid pathway.
V. Porphyrins                                                                                                                             
Structure and synthesis of haemoglobin and Chlorophyll.
Occurrence, nomenclature, classification, biogenesis and physiological effects. Synthesis of PGE2 and PGF
VII. Pyrethroids and Rotenones                                                                                              
Synthesis and reactions of Pyrethroids and Rotenones.
(For structure elucidation, emphasis is to be placed on the use of spectral parameters wherever possible).
Books suggested
1.      Natural Products: Chemistry and Biological Significance, J. Mann, R. S. Davidson, J. B. Hobbs, D. V. Banthrope and J. B. Harborne, Longman, Essex.
2.      Organic Chemistry, Vol. 2, I. L. Finar, ELBS.
3.      Stereo selective Synthesis: A Practical Approach, M. Nogradi, VCH.
4.      Rodd’s Chemistry of Carbon Compounds, Ed. S. Coffey, Elsevier.
5.      Chemistry, Biological and Pharmacological Properties of Medicinal Plants from the Americas. Ed. Kurt Hostettmann, M. P. Gupta and A. Marston, Harwood Academic Publishers.
6.      Introduction to Flavonoids, B. A. Bohm, Harwood Academic Publishers.
7.      New Trends in Natural Product Chemistry, Atta-ur-Rahman and M.I. Choudhary, Harwood Academic Publishers.
8.      Insecticides of Natural Origin, Sukh Dev, Harwood Academic Publishers.
M.Sc., Semester – III (Session 2010)
Elective Paper CHE-E-328
Chemistry of Materials
      60 Hrs, Credit-04
I           Multiphase Materials                                                                       
Ferrous alloys; Fe-C phase transformations in ferrous alloys; stainless steels, non-ferrous alloys, properties of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys and their applications
II          Glasses, Ceramics, Composites and Nanomaterials                  
Glassy state, glass former and glass modifiers, applications. Ceramic structures, mechanical properties, clay products. Refractories, characterization, properties and applications.
Microscopic composites; dispersion-strengthened and particle-reinforced, fibre-reinforced composites, macroscopic composites. Nanocrystalline phase, preparation procedures, special properties, applications.
III         Thin film and Langmuir-Blodgett Films                                        
Preparation techniques; evaporation / sputtering, chemical processes, MOCVD, sol-gel etc. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) Film, growth techniques, photolithography, properties and applications of thin and LB Films.
IV         Liquid Crystals                                                                                 
Mesmorphic behavior, thermotrophic liquid crystals, positional order, bond orientational order, nematic and smectic mesophases; smectic–nematic transition and clearing temperature-homeotrophic, planar and schlieren textures, twisted nematics, chiral nematics, molecular arrangement in smectic A and smectic C phases, optical properties of liquid crystals. Dielectric susceptibility and dielectric constants. Lyotropic phases and their description of ordering in liquid crystals.
V          Polymeric Materials                                                                         
Molecular shape, structure and configuration, crystallinity, stress-strain behaviour, thermal behaviour, polymer types and their applications, conducting and ferro-electric polymers.
VI         Ionic Conductors                                                                             
Types of ionic conductors, mechanism of ionic conductions, interstitial jumps (Frenkel); vacancy mechanism, diffusion superionic conductors; phase transitions and mechanism of conduction in superionic conductors, examples and applications of ionic conductors.
VII        High Tc materials                                                                             
Defect perovskites, high Tc superconductivity in cuprates, preparation and characterization of 1-2-3 and 2-1-4 materials, normal state properties; anisotropy; temperature dependence of electrical resistance; optical phonon modes, superconducting state; heat capacity; coherence length, elastic constants, position life times, microwave absorption–pairing and multigap structure in high Tc materials, applications of high Tc materials.
VIII       Organic Solids, Fullerenes, Molecular Devices   
Conducting organics, organic superconductors, magnetism in organic materials.
Fullerenes-doped, fullerenes as superconductors.
Molecular rectifiers and transistors, artificial synthetic devices, optical storage memory and switches-sensors.
Nonlinear optical materials: nonlinear optical effects, second and third order-molecular hyperpolarisability and second order electric susceptibility-materials for second and third harmonic generation.
Books Suggested
1          Solid State Physics, N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Saunders College.
2          Materials Science and Engineering, an Introduction, W. D. Callister, Willey.
3          Principles of the Solid State, H. V. Keer, Willey Eastern.
4          Materials Science, J. C. Anderson, K. D. Leaver, J. M. Alexander and R. D. Rawlings, ELBS
5          Thermotropic Liquid Crystals, Ed., G. W. Gray, John Willey.
6          Handbook of Liquid Crystals, Kelker and Hatz, Chemie Verlag.
                  M.Sc., Semester – III (Session 2010)
Elective Paper CHE-E-329
                Nuclear Chemistry and Radio Chemistry
60 Hrs, Credit-04
  1. Detection and measurement of radioactive radiations (G. M. and Scintillation Counter). Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, units for measuring radiation absorption and radiation energy, radiation dosimetry.
  1. Properties of Nucleus :-
Nuclear charge and its determination, the nuclear radius, total angular momentum of the nucleus, the magnetic properties of the nucleus, nuclear spin, nuclear magnetic resonance, nuclear parity and nuclear statistics.
  1. Nuclear models :-
Nuclear binding and structure of the nucleus, Shell model, Liquid drop model, Fermi – Gas model, Collective model, Optical model.
  1. Nuclear Reaction :-
General consideration, Bethe’s notation, Types of nuclear reactions, Conservation of energy and momentum, Coulomb’s barriers, Reaction threshold, Reaction cross section, Compounds nucleus theory, experimental evidence of Bohr’s theory.
  1. Nuclear reactors (Fission) :-
Fission energy, Natural uranium reactor, the Four factor formula, the reproduction factor, classification of reactors, Reactor power, Critical size of a thermal reactor, reprocessing of spent fuels, Nuclear waste management, The Breeder Reactors.
      6.   A. Nuclear reactors (Fusion):-
Thermonuclear reactions, Fusion Reactors (Pinch Effect and INERTIAL confinement)
B. Photonuclear Reactions:- High energy photon sources, Types of photonuclear reactions, special features of photonuclear reactions.
C. Radiochemical principles in the use of Tracers, Typical applications of radioisotopes as Tracers.
D. Principles and applications of Neutron Activation Analysis.
 Books suggested:
1. Essentials of Nuclear chemistry, H.J. Arnikar, 4th Edition Wiley Eastern (1987).
      2. Chemical Applications of Radioisotopes, H. J. M. Bowen. Buttler and Tanner (1969).
      3. Introduction of Nuclear and Radiochemistry, G Friedlander, T. W. Kennedy, E.S.                      
          Macias and J.M. Miller, 3rd Edition, John Wiley (1981).  
      M.Sc., SEMESTER-III (SESSION 2010)
                                                          Analytical Chemistry   
                                                             60 Hrs, Credit-04
Classification and Sample Preparation
Classification of Analytical methods–classical and instrumental. Types of instrumental analysis. Volumetric analysis glassware calibration, Samples and sample preparation - Introductory idea of sampling, dissolution and decomposition. Gravimetric techniques. Reagents in analysis and their application.
Errors and Evaluation
Definition of terms in mean and median. Precision-standard déviation, relative standard déviation. Accuracy-absolute error, relative error. Type of error in experimental data determinate (systematic), indeterminate (or random) and gross, Sources of errors and the effects upon the analytical results. Methods for reporting analytical data. Statistical evaluation of data-indeterminate errors. The uses of standard statistical packages.
Food Analysis
Moisture, ash, crude protein, fat crude fibre, carbohydrates, calcium potassium, sodium and phosphate. Food adulteration-common adulterants in food, contamination of food stuffs. Microscopic examination of foods for adulterants. Pesticide analysis in food products. Extraction and purification of sample, HPLC. Gas chromatography for organophosphates. Thin-layer chromatography for identification of chlorinated pesticides in food products.
Analysis of Water Pollution
Origin of waste water, types, water pollutants and their effects. Sources of water pollution domestic, industrial, agricultural soil and radioactive wastes as sources of pollution. Objectives of analysis-parameter for analysis-colour, turbidity, total solids, conductivity, acidity, alkalinity, hardness, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, silica, phosphates and different forms of nitrogen. Heavy metal pollution public health significance of cadmium, chromium copper, lead, zinc, manganese, mercury and arsenic. General survey of instrumental technique for the analysis of heavy metals in aqueous systems. Measurement of DO, BOD and COD. Pesticides as water pollutants and analysis. Water pollution laws and standards.
Analysis of Soil, Fuel, Body Fluids and Drugs
(a)    Analysis of soil: moisture, pH, total nitrogen, phosphorus, silica, lime, magnesia, manganese, sulphur and alkali salts.
(b)   Fuel analysis: solid liquid and gas. Ultimate and proximate analysis heating values grading of coal. Liquid fuels flash point aniline point octane number and carbon. Residue. Gaseous fuels producer gas and water gas calorific value.
(c)    Clinical chemistry: Composition of blood collection and preservation of samples Clinical analysis. Serum electrolytes, blood glucose blood urea nitrogen, uric acid albumin, globulins, barbiturates, acid and alkaline phosphates, immunoassay principles of radio immunoassay (RIA) and applications. The blood gas analysis trace elements in the body.
(d)   Drug analysis; Narcotics and dangerous drugs. Classification of drugs. Screening by gas and thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric measurements.
Books Suggested
1.   Analytical Chemistry, G.D. Christian, J. Wiley
      2.   Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, D.A. Skoog, D.M. West and F.J. Hooller,
            W.B. Saunders.
      3.   Analytical Chemistry Principles, J.H. Kennedy, W.B. Saunders.
      4.   Analytical Chemistry Principles and techniques, L.G. Hargis, Prentice Hall.
      5.   Principles of Instrumental analysis, D.A. Skoog and J.L. Loary, W.B. Saunders.
      6.   Principles of instrumental analysis, D.A. Skoog, W.B. Saunders.
      7.   Quantitative Analysis, R.A. Day, Jr. and A.L. Underwood, Prentice Hall
      8.   Environmental Solution Analysis, S.M. Khopkar Wiley Eastern
      9.   Basic Concepts of Analytical Chemistry, S.M. Khopkar, Wiley Eastern.
     10   Handbook of Instrumental Techniques for Analytical Chemistry, F.Settle, Prentice Hall.